FLAP SERGERIES

 
 
Flap surgeries are described as the loosening of the gum from the bone to expose & clean the underlying tooth structures.

In advanced gum diseases, when cleaning and polishing prove to be unsuccessful in eliminating the pocket if decay then it needs to be surgically corrected.

In flap surgeries under LA, small incisions or cuts are made in gums so that it can be lifted back to expose the tooth and bone.
Then the entire area is cleaned of tartar and debirs and the gum is sutured back in place.

The patients normally do not experience severe pain following the surgery, however the gum will be swollen for a few days following the procedure.

Patients can return to work immediately if the swelling of the gums is not painful.

Flap or gum surgeries can also be performed in many cases for esthetic purposes.                                           

 



Periodontal Diseases
Periodontitis or periodontal diseases is a disease in which the tissue that anchors the teeth to the underlying bone is chronically inflamed. Eventually, the bone that supports the teeth can be destroyed. When supporting bone is destroyed, teeth loosen, and aster a period of time, fall out or may have to be extracted. Periodontitis usually follows if gingivitis is left untreated.

Types of Periodontal Disease

*    Gingivitis is the earliest stage, and affects only the gum tissue. At this stage, the disease is still reversible. If not treated, however, it may lead to a more severe condition
*    Periodontis is more advanced stage of periodontal diseases. The gums, bone and other structures that support the teeth become damaged. Teeth can become loose and fall out       – or may have to be removed. At this stage, the disease may require more complex treatment to prevent tooth loss
*    Advance periodontitis is present when the teeth lose more attachment because the supporting bone is destroyed

Contributing factors to periodontal diseases

*    People who smoke or chew tobacco
*    Poorly fitting bridges, malocclusion (badly aligned teeth) or defective restorations (fillings)
*    Habits which place excessive biting forces on your teeth
*    Poor diet
*    Pregnancy or use of oral contraceptives
*    Systemic Diseases
*    Medications

Warning Signs

*    Gums that bleeds easily
*    Red, swollen or tender gums
*    Gums that have pulled away from the teeth
*    Pus between the teeth and gums when the gums are pressed
*    Persistent bad breath or bad taste
*    Permanent teeth that are loose or separating
*    Any change in the way your teeth fit together when you bite
*    Any changes in the fit of partial dentures     
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           

Diagnosis

PERIODONTAL PROBE will be used to determine if there is any breakdown in the gum tissue attachment or development of pockets between your gums and teeth. Also need to take X-RAYS to determine if any bone has been destroyed.
 
Treatments

*   The first step is usually thorough cleaning which may include SCALING to remove plaque and calculus deposits beneath the       gum line
*    The tooth roots may also be PLANED to smooth the root surface so that gum tissue may heal next to the teeth
*   Surgery may be required when deeper pockets (over 4 to 6mm) are found. when pockets are deep and bone has been    destroyed, Flap Surgery may be necessary to allow the dentist to get access to the roots of the teeth in order to thoroughly      remove calculus, plaque and any diseased tissue
*   OSSEOUS (BONE) SURGERY sometimes accompanies flap surgery. Some of the bone around the tooth is reshaped. In certain      instances, a bone graft may be employed to replace lost bone
*  SPILNTS or other appliances ma be used to stabilize loose teeth temporarily and may be necessary after completion of periodontal therapy as well